The most important implementation resource for barcode identification are the over 100 GS1 Member Organisations in countries all around the world. This guide takes new barcode users
through the basic steps they must take to begin using barcodes.
Ten Steps to Barcode Implementation
Step 1 Get a GS1 Company Prefix
Step 2 Assign numbers
Step 3 Select a barcode printing process
Step 4 Select a "primary" scanning environment
Step 5 Select a barcode
Step 6 Pick a barcode size
Step 7 Format the barcode text
Step 8 Pick a barcode colour
Step 9 Pick the barcode placement
Step 10 Build a barcode quality plan
1 Get a GS1 Company Prefix
Before a company can begin using barcodes, they must first assign the numbers that go inside the barcode,called GS1 Identification Keys. The first step in assigning a GS1 Identification Key is to obtain a GS1 Company Prefix from a GS1 Member Organisation.
The GS1 Company Prefix provides a way for companies to create identification keys for trade items, logistic units, locations, parties, assets, coupons, etc. which are unique all around the world. GS1 Company Prefixes are used by 1.3 million companies worldwide as the basis for creating unique numbers to identify everything in the supply chain.
2 Assign numbers
After receiving a GS1 Company Prefix, a company is ready to begin assigning identification numbers to their trade items (products or services), themselves (as a legal entity), locations, logistic units, individual company assets, returnable assets (pallets, kegs, tubs), and/or service relationships. The process is simple. Your local GS1 Member Organisation can provide you with specific information about how many numbers you can assign based on the length of your GS1
3 Select a barcode printing process
To begin, you should decide what you are barcoding and if the barcode will carry static or dynamic information inside it. If the information is static (always the same), the barcode can be printed using traditional printing presses directly on the package (e.g., paper milk carton) or on a label that is applied to the package (e.g., label on a gallon milk jug.) If the information is dynamic then either digital or a combination of digital and traditional printing will be required.
If the product requires multi-colour graphics and a barcode with dynamic data, the graphics
could be pre-printed using traditional printing presses and leave a blank portion of the label for
digital printing inline during production and packaging.
If the product only requires text and a barcode with dynamic data, a label could be printed inline and applied to the package (automatically if high volume or by hand if low volume). It could also be printed directly on the package itself without using a label.
Also a barcode with static data could be printed directly on the package using a digital printing
method, for example when the same packaging is used for different products.
4 Select a "primary" scanning environment
The specifications for barcode type, size, placement, and quality all depend on where the barcode will be scanned. By knowing where your barcode will be scanned you can establish the right specifications for its production.
Barcodes to be scanned at the retail point-of-sale will need to support omnidirectional scanning.
If the barcode will be scanned at point-of-sale as well as in the warehouse, you will need to use a symbol that accommodates point-of-sale scanning, but printed in a larger size to accommodate scanning in the distribution process. Barcodes on healthcare items to be scanned in hospitals and pharmacies do not require omnidirectional scanning, unless the items are also scanned at retail point-of-sale.
5 Select a barcode
Selecting the right barcode is critical to the success of your barcode implementation plan, but here are some high level tips:
■ If you need to barcode a trade item that will be scanned at the retail point-of-sale (POS), first
symbol of choice is the EAN/UPC symbol. This symbol is guaranteed to be scanned by POS
systems all over the world. In some cases GS1 DataBar symbol may be applied.
■ If you are printing a barcode with variable information like serial numbers, expiry dates, or
measures, then you will use GS1-128, GS1 DataBar, or GS1 2D symbols.
■ If you want to encode a URL into a barcode to make extended packaging information available
to the end consumer, then you should use a GS1 2D symbol.
■ If you need to barcode an outer case to be scanned in a logistics environment, and you want
to print directly on corrugated carton, ITF-14 may be the choice for you.
6 Pick a barcode size
After the correct barcode symbol is specified together with the information to encode in it, the
design stage begins. The size of the symbol within the design will depend on the symbol specified, where the symbol will be used, and how the symbol will be printed.
The X-dimension is the specified width of the narrowest element of a barcode. X-dimensions are
used together with the symbol heights to specify the permissible symbol sizes.
For each scanning environment the relevant symbols are listed with their target X-dimension and
corresponding target height. Besides the target sizes also the allowed minimum and maximum sizes are specified.
EAN/UPC Symbols are designed for scanning by retail omnidirectional scanners. This means that EAN/UPC Symbols have two segments which are taller than they are wide. There is a fixed relationship between symbol height and width. When one dimension is modified, the other dimension should be altered by a proportional amount. In order to decrease the amount of space EAN/UPC Symbols take up on a design, a decreased symbol height might be specified. This process, called truncation, is not permitted within EAN/UPC symbology specifications and should be avoided.
This is because of the negative impact it has on scan rates for retail omnidirectional scanners.
Consideration of the printing process The final major consideration for symbol size is the capability of the selected printing process. The minimum size (magnification) and correct Bar Width Reduction (BWR) for a symbol varies by printing process and even from press to press. Printing companies should establish a minimum symbol size (magnification) and BWR to achieve acceptable and repeatable quality results.
7 Format the barcode text
The text beneath a barcode, called Human Readable Interpretation (HRI), is important because if the barcode is damaged or of poor quality to begin with, then the text is used as a back-up. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions on HRI: Does the Human Readable Interpretation need to be a certain size?
The human-readable text must be clearly legible and in a size proportional to the symbol size.
Is the Human Readable Interpretation supposed to be above or below the symbol?
HRI should be placed below the barcode and grouped together wherever physically possible while maintaining the HRI legibility and minimum barcode height. I see parentheses around the Application Identifiers (AI) under some barcode symbols. Are they supposed to be there and are they encoded in the bars and spaces of the symbol?
All AIs must be enclosed in parentheses in the Human Readable Interpretation, but the parentheses are not encoded in the symbol.
How many digits do I print beneath the EAN/UPC Symbol in the Human Readable text?
■ You must print 12 digits below the UPC-A Symbol.
■ You must print 13 digits below the EAN-13 Symbol.
■ You must print eight digits below UPC-E and EAN-8 Symbols.
8 Pick a barcode colour
The optimum colour combination for a barcode symbol is black bars with a white background. If you want to use other colours, the following may help you in choosing satisfactory ones:
■ GS1 barcodes require dark colours for bars (e.g., black, dark blue, dark brown, or dark green).
■ The bars should always consist of a single line colour and should never be printed by multiple imaging tools (e.g., plate, screen, cylinder, etc.).
■ GS1 barcodes require light backgrounds for the Quiet Zones (area free of printing around the barcode) and spaces (e.g., white).
■ In addition to light backgrounds, "reddish" colours may also be used. If you have ever been in a darkroom with red lighting and tried to read red copy, you know it can virtually disappear. This is also true of similar colours such as orange, pink, peach, and light yellows. Given the fact that most barcode scanners use a red light source, you can quickly see why these colours may be suitable for backgrounds, but should be avoided for bars.
■ In many cases the symbol background is not printed and the colour of the packaging substrate is used as barcode background. However, if the symbol background is printed beneath the bars, the background should be printed as solid line colours.
■ If you use multiple layers of ink to increase the background opacity, each layer should be printed as a solid colour.
■ If you use a fine screen to deliver more ink to the substrate, be sure there are no voids in the print caused by the screen not adequately filling in.
9 Pick the barcode placement
When discussing symbol location we are referring to the symbol placement on the design. When assigning symbol placement first the packaging process should be considered. You should consult the packaging engineer to make sure the symbol will not be obscured or damaged (e.g., over a carton edge, beneath a carton fold, beneath a package flap, or covered by another packaging layer).
After determining the proper placement, the printing company should be consulted. This is because many printing processes require barcodes to be printed in a specific orientation to the feed direction of the web or sheet. When using flexographic printing the bars should run parallel to the press direction. If the bars are required to run perpendicular to the press direction check to ensure the symbol is not distorted. When using either silk screen or rotogravure printing processes, the symbol should be aligned parallel to the cell structure on the screen or gravure plate cylinder to provide the smoothest bar edge possible.
10 Build a barcode quality plan
ISO/IEC 15416 Barcode Print Quality Test Specifications for Linear Symbols describes a method for assessing the quality of barcode symbols after they are printed. An ISO-based verifier looks at the symbol in the way a scanner does, but goes further by grading the symbol's quality. GS1 utilises the ISO/IEC method, but specifies the minimum grade necessary for every GS1 barcode based on which symbol is used, where it is used, or what identification number it is carrying. In addition to the minimum grade, GS1 also specifies the verifier aperture width and wavelength. Setting up different minimum specifications is similar to a university using a standardised test to determine whether applicants qualify for admission. Several universities may utilise the same
standardised test, but each sets the minimum score necessary for its applicants to be admitted.